A pendulum clock is a clock that uses a penduluma swinging weight, as its timekeeping element. The advantage of a pendulum for timekeeping is that it is a harmonic oscillator ; it swings back and forth in a precise time interval dependent on its length, and resists swinging at other rates. From its invention in by Christiaan Huygens until the s, the pendulum clock was the world's most precise timekeeper, accounting for its widespread use.
Pendulum clocks must be stationary to operate; any motion or accelerations will affect the motion of the pendulum, causing inaccuracies, so other mechanisms must be used in portable timepieces.
They are now kept mostly for their decorative and antique value. The pendulum clock was invented in by Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygensand patented the following year. Huygens contracted the construction of his clock designs to clockmaker Salomon Costerwho actually built the clock.
Huygens was inspired by investigations of pendulums by Galileo Galilei beginning around Galileo discovered the key property that makes pendulums useful timekeepers: isochronismwhich means that the period of swing of a pendulum is approximately the same for different sized swings. In his analysis of pendulums, Horologium OscillatoriumHuygens showed that wide swings made the pendulum inaccurate, causing its periodand thus the rate of the clock, to vary with unavoidable variations in the driving force provided by the movement.
In addition to increased accuracy, the anchor's narrow pendulum swing allowed the clock's case to accommodate longer, slower pendulums, which needed less power and caused less wear on the movement. The seconds pendulum also called the Royal pendulum0. The long narrow clocks built around these pendulums, first made by William Clement aroundbecame known as grandfather clocks.
The increased accuracy resulting from these developments caused the minute hand, previously rare, to be added to clock faces beginning around The 18th and 19th century wave of horological innovation that followed the invention of the pendulum brought many improvements to pendulum clocks.
The deadbeat escapement invented in by Richard Towneley and popularized by George Graham around in his precision "regulator" clocks gradually replaced the anchor escapement  and is now used in most modern pendulum clocks. Observation that pendulum clocks slowed down in summer brought the realization that thermal expansion and contraction of the pendulum rod with changes in temperature was a source of error.
This was solved by the invention of temperature-compensated pendulums; the mercury pendulum by George Graham in and the gridiron pendulum by John Harrison in Until the 19th century, clocks were handmade by individual craftsmen and were very expensive.
The rich ornamentation of pendulum clocks of this period indicates their value as status symbols of the wealthy. The clockmakers of each country and region in Europe developed their own distinctive styles.
By the 19th century, factory production of clock parts gradually made pendulum clocks affordable by middle-class families. During the Industrial Revolutiondaily life was organized around the home pendulum clock.The best quartz fake torsion pendulum drive that I have seen.
It slows down at each end of it's rotation. I've seen some that rotate at a nearly constant speed and then abruptly slow down and reverse direction. There was no maker shown on the clock. When I took the cover off of the movement I saw that it was made by Haller.
The worst pendulum drive mechanisms that I have seen look like a generic quartz movement with a black plastic case. They take a single AA battery and have a shaft on top to drive the pendulum. They must wear out quickly. I buy used modern quartz anniversary clocks to get the glass dome for use on older mechanical clocks. I've not yet bought a used clock with this type of pendulum drive that was still working. The quartz movement is OK but the pendulum drive was dead.
I was also going to post a picture of one of those junky pendulum drive mechanisms.Please create an account, or Log in here. If you don't have an account, create one here. This is a Kundo torsion pendulum clock, or torsion clock also known as day or anniversary clockis a mechanical clock which keeps time with a mechanism called a torsion pendulum. This is a weighted disk or wheel, often a decorative wheel with 3 or 4 chrome balls on ornate spokes, suspended by a thin wire or ribbon called a torsion spring.
The torsion pendulum rotates about the vertical axis of the wire, twisting it, instead of swinging like an ordinary pendulum. The force of the twisting torsion spring reverses the direction of rotation, so the torsion pendulum oscillates slowly, clockwise and counterclockwise.
The clock's gears apply a pulse of torque to the top of the torsion spring each rotation to keep the wheel going. The wheel and torsion spring function similarly to a watch's balance wheel and hairspring, as a harmonic oscillator to control the rate of the clock's hands. Create an account or login in order to post a comment. Collectors Weekly.
Sign in. All Categories All. Budek loves this. Aimathena loves this. DrFluffy loves this. SEAN68 loves this. Bruce99 loves this. Posted 6 years ago. See all.Anniversary clocks gained popularity as wedding gifts.
They are unique in that they run days a year and only need to be wound once a year, which couples tend to do on their anniversary as a celebratory tradition. At The Clock Doctor, we understand the sentimental value anniversary clocks hold. We provide friendly service, affordable prices and local shop options in the Sacramento and Turlock, California areas. Since anniversary clocks are smaller clocks, they can also be easily shipped to us for clock repair if you are not in the area.
If your anniversary clock needs to be repaired, serviced or to have parts replaced, contact us today so we can take care of that for you to have your anniversary clock up and running again quickly.
How to Fix a Pendulum Clock
When most people think of clocks, they probably have a relatively modern image in mind. If not, they might be imagining a variety of clocks, but making the assumption that the inner workings of various kinds of clocks are more or less the same.
Whereas traditional clocks up until the time of the invention of the torsion clock had depended on basic pendulum mechanisms, moderated by anchor escapements. With the torsion clock, invented in by Aaron Crane, a timepiece was born that could keep time while consuming much, much less energy than its standard pendulum counterparts like the grandfather clock, for example. Because of their low energy consumption, torsion clocks could often run for hundreds of days at a time without needing to be rewound.
Some versions could last even longer, running for up to 1, days on a single wind! That said, torsion clocks are not without their own problems. The clocks operate upon a weighted disk with several balls attached via spokes.
These elements are all suspended by a suspension spring. Furthermore, because these clocks can keep running on one spring for so long, small deviations in speed can become large time losses or gains over time. Owners who wish to keep their clocks accurate should wind them once per month or more in order to ensure that they stay on pace. While Crane may be credited with the invention of the torsion clock, its driving mechanism the torsion pendulum was actually invented nearly 50 years earlier, inby Robert Leslie.
Interestingly enough, a German author by the name of Anton Harder is thought to have simultaneously and independently invented the torsion clock sometime in the last two decades of the 18th century.
Anniversary Clocks. Anniversary Clock Repair Anniversary clocks gained popularity as wedding gifts. A little historical background on anniversary clocks:.
Ready to get your clock repaired? Contact Us.Based in Northern California, Maureen Katemopoulos has been a freelance writer for more than 25 years. Her articles on travel, the arts, cuisine and history have appeared in publications such as "Stanislaus Magazine," "Orientations," "The Asia Magazine" and "The Peninsula Group Magazine.
Arounda German clock maker, Anton Harder, patented a torsion suspension clock that worked for a year with just one winding. These "anniversary clocks" were also called "day clocks" and "1,day clocks" to indicate winding frequency.
Anniversary clocks became popular gifts for birthdays and anniversaries. These ornamental clocks with glass domes and openwork mechanisms graced mantels and fascinated onlookers.
Their openwork mechanisms literally showcased the passage of time because the pendulum movement was visible. Today battery operation has replaced physical winding, although the basic mechanical principles remain intact. The original anniversary clocks are now mainly family heirlooms and the domain of collectors.
An anniversary clock is a torsion clock. A torsion pendulum operates the clock. After several incarnations, the flat disc pendulum of the earliest anniversary clocks became today's torsion suspension pendulum that twirls while suspended in a hovering position.
Usually, three to four small gold, silver or crystal globes on individual spokes decorate the base. Other decorative elements include artificial flowers. The pendulum is suspended from a torsion spring. The spring is a rope-like suspension wire.
The torsion spring works like the high wire supporting a Cirque de Soleil performer, except that it does not have the same flexibility of movement. It moves only clockwise, then counterclockwise, in a fixed rotation. The clock's internal gears energize the torsion spring. It operates on less energy than a conventional pendulum that swings from side to side. Temperature and humidity fluctuations affected the elasticity of the suspension spring in early torsion clocks, making them inaccurate timekeepers.
InCharles Terwilliger invented a suspension spring that overcame the problem. Place torsion clocks on a level surface. They will not function properly otherwise. Imbalance causes the pendulum to stop twirling. On most torsion clocks, there are three strategically placed discs at the base.If your pendulum clock has lost its best beat, you can get it back in time with a bit of beat education and simple tools.
How Do Anniversary Clocks Work?
Understanding the mechanics of your cherished time piece will help you fix problems that can occur without having to drag the clock to a repair specialist.
If the tic follows right behind the toc or the toc lags before the tic, you should take the time to find the issue and correct it with a few simple moves.
The health of your clock is easily detected by its tic and toc. If you've checked that the clock is wound up, take a minute to listen to the beats it's putting out. A steady tic toc sounds like a metronome, steady and slow. If your clock keeps stopping, it could be the space it rests on. If you've recently moved your clock, you should check the foundation for levelness. A clock that leans to the left or right at the slightest angle will throw your pendulum into pandemonium or stop it in its daily tracks for tracking good time.
Don't worry about getting a level out and finding a perfect plane. Simply start the pendulum swinging and move the case gently until the tic and toc are in good balance. Also, check that the hands aren't touching the glass that covers the encasement of the clock.
This is a typical problem that clock owners overlook and repairman find in seconds of laying eyes on the face of the piece. Simply bend the obstructing hand or hands toward the dial.Torsional Pendulum Clocks
Be careful not to let the minute and hour hands touch at any point during their travels around the face of the clock and get caught, causing another hiccup in the tic toc of your clock. Clocks contain oils to keep its mechanics running smoothly. The oil attracts dirt and dust from the air that circulates through the home all year long. It needs a good cleaning at least every seven years. Don't let 10 years slide by without getting the oils renewed as they also tend to dry out and will slow down, if not completely damage, the delicate machinery of the clock.
A professional clock cleaner can check the timing and replace the oil as well as give a good prime to all the moving parts that work day and night to bring you the exact time to the minute. As a professional writer she has researched, interviewed sources and written about home improvement, interior design and related business trends.
She earned a B. Her full bio and clips can be viewed at www. Hunker may earn compensation through affiliate links in this story. How to Fix a Pendulum Clock. Share this article. Kimberley McGee. Connect on LinkedIn. Show Comments.These clocks can also be called day or anniversary clocks because they can run for a very long time without needing to be wound usually a year. Although some can even go a thousand days without winding, it's best to do it at least once a month to make sure the time is accurate.
The reason why they're capable of this is that the torsion pendulum rotates very slowly, which takes little energy. They can be difficult to work with, however, and might not be as accurate as normal pendulum clocks, since it's possible for the oscillation to be altered when the temperature changes — this change mainly affects the spring mechanism.
One oscillation can take between 10 to 20 seconds. Setting the Clock Even though the torsion clock has an extremely delicate mechanism, this makes it an example of fine engineering. Setting the time is proof of that. To do it, it's necessary to avoid moving the torsion clock after locking the pendulum balls or taking them off, because even a slight jolt can damage the spring mechanism. Once the clock is in a safe and levelled place, the pendulum balls can be centred with the clock base and given a small push to let them swing degrees.
You should wait at least fifteen minutes before setting the time, so you can be sure of the swinging speed of the pendulum and then set the correct time by moving the minute hand to the number you desire. So it might seem like the mechanism is too fiddly, when in reality it's these small and fine components that come together to create a clock that can go months without ever needing to be winded.
The Spring The suspension spring is, perhaps, the most delicate of all the components in this clock: if it's bent or distorted, then the clock is no longer functioning as it should. The purpose of this spring is to suspend the pendulum in the air and allow it to swing back and forth. It's usually attached to the clock with a screw and, while putting in a new one, you need to be careful not to bend it.
If you don't know where this spring goes, holding the suspension up to the clock should give you an idea of the height and, consequently, the place where the new spring will need to be put.
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Tweets by europeansprings. They use torsion springs and expose the internal mechanism with a glass case, which allows people to watch the torsion pendulum work. Share this post Bookmark the permalink.
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